Content of Maths Curriculum

Year 1 programme of study

Number - number and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

·       count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number

·       count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of 2s, 5s and 10s

·       given a number, identify 1 more and 1 less

·       identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least

·       read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words

Number - addition and subtraction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (−) and equals (=) signs

·       represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20

·       add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including 0

·       solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems such as 7 = ? – 9

 

Number - multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

·       solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher

Number - fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

·       recognise, find and name a half as 1 of 2 equal parts of an object, shape or quantity

·       recognise, find and name a quarter as 1 of 4 equal parts of an object, shape or quantity

 

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

·       compare, describe and solve practical problems for:

·       lengths and heights [for example, long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half]

·       mass/weight [for example, heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than]

·       capacity and volume [for example, full/empty, more than, less than, half, half full, quarter]

·       time [for example, quicker, slower, earlier, later]

·       measure and begin to record the following:

·       lengths and heights

·       mass/weight

·       capacity and volume

·       time (hours, minutes, seconds)

·       recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes

·       sequence events in chronological order using language [for example, before and after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening]

·       recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years

·       tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times

 

Geometry - properties of shapes

Pupils should be taught to:

·       recognise and name common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including:

·       2-D shapes [for example, rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles]

·       3-D shapes [for example, cuboids (including cubes), pyramids and spheres]

Geometry - position and direction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       describe position, direction and movement, including whole, half, quarter and three-quarter turns

Year 2 programme of study

Number - number and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

·       count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in 10s from any number, forward and backward

·       recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (10s, 1s)

·       identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations, including the number line

·       compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs

·       read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words

·       use place value and number facts to solve problems

Number - addition and subtraction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       solve problems with addition and subtraction:

·       using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures

·       applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods

·       recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100

·       add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:

·       a two-digit number and 1s

·       a two-digit number and 10s

·       2 two-digit numbers

·       adding 3 one-digit numbers

·       show that addition of 2 numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of 1 number from another cannot

·       recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems

Number - multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

·       recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers

·       calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (×), division (÷) and equals (=) signs

·       show that multiplication of 2 numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of 1 number by another cannot

·       solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts

Number - fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

·       recognise, find, name and write fractions Description: 1/3 , Description: 1/4 , Description: 2/4 and Description: 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity

·       write simple fractions, for example Description: 1/2 of 6 = 3 and recognise the equivalence of Description: 2/4 and Description: 1/2

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

·       choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (°C); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels

·       compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using >, < and =

·       recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value

·       find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money

·       solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change

·       compare and sequence intervals of time

·       tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times

·       know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day

Geometry - properties of shapes

Pupils should be taught to:

·       identify and describe the properties of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides, and line symmetry in a vertical line

·       identify and describe the properties of 3-D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces

·       identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes, [for example, a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid]

·       compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects

Geometry - position and direction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences

·       use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anti-clockwise)

Statistics

Pupils should be taught to:

·       interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and tables

·       ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category and sorting the categories by quantity

·       ask-and-answer questions about totalling and comparing categorical data

Year 3 programme of study

Number - number and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

·       count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number

·       recognise the place value of each digit in a 3-digit number (100s, 10s, 1s)

·       compare and order numbers up to 1,000

·       identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations

·       read and write numbers up to 1,000 in numerals and in words

·       solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas

Number - addition and subtraction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       add and subtract numbers mentally, including:

·       a three-digit number and 1s

·       a three-digit number and 10s

·       a three-digit number and 100s

·       add and subtract numbers with up to 3 digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction

·       estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers

·       solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction

Number - multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

·       recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables

·       write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods

·       solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division, including positive integer scaling problems and correspondence problems in which n objects are connected to m objects

Number - fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

·       count up and down in tenths; recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one-digit numbers or quantities by 10

·       recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators

·       recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators

·       recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators

·       add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole [for example, Description: 5/7 + Description: 1/7 = Description: 6/7 ]

·       compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators

·       solve problems that involve all of the above


Year 4 programme of study

Number - number and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

·       count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1,000

·       find 1,000 more or less than a given number

·       count backwards through 0 to include negative numbers

·       recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (1,000s, 100s, 10s, and 1s)

·       order and compare numbers beyond 1,000

·       identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations

·       round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1,000

·       solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers

·       read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of 0 and place value

Number - addition and subtraction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate

·       estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation

·       solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why

Number - multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

·       recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12

·       use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together 3 numbers

·       recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations

·       multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout

·       solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two-digit numbers by 1 digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects

Number - fractions (including decimals)

Pupils should be taught to:

·       recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions

·       count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by 100 and dividing tenths by 10

·       solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number

·       add and subtract fractions with the same denominator

·       recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundreds

·       recognise and write decimal equivalents to Description: 1/4 , Description: 1/2 , Description: 3/4

·       find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths

·       round decimals with 1 decimal place to the nearest whole number

·       compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to 2 decimal places

·       solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to 2 decimal places

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

·       convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]

·       measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres

·       find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares

·       estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence

·       read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12- and 24-hour clocks

·       solve problems involving converting from hours to minutes, minutes to seconds, years to months, weeks to days

Geometry - properties of shapes

Pupils should be taught to:

·       compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes

·       identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to 2 right angles by size

·       identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations

·       complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry

Geometry - position and direction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant

·       describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down

·       plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon

Statistics

Pupils should be taught to:

·       interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs

·       solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs

Year 5 programme of study

Number - number and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

·       read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1,000,000 and determine the value of each digit

·       count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 for any given number up to 1,000,000

·       interpret negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers, including through 0

·       round any number up to 1,000,000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 100,000

·       solve number problems and practical problems that involve all of the above

·       read Roman numerals to 1,000 (M) and recognise years written in Roman numerals

Number - addition and subtraction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits, including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction)

·       add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers

·       use rounding to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy

·       solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why

Number - multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

·       identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of 2 numbers

·       know and use the vocabulary of prime numbers, prime factors and composite (non-prime) numbers

·       establish whether a number up to 100 is prime and recall prime numbers up to 19

·       multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one- or two-digit number using a formal written method, including long multiplication for two-digit numbers

·       multiply and divide numbers mentally, drawing upon known facts

·       divide numbers up to 4 digits by a one-digit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context

·       multiply and divide whole numbers and those involving decimals by 10, 100 and 1,000

·       recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers, and the notation for squared (²) and cubed (³)

·       solve problems involving multiplication and division, including using their knowledge of factors and multiples, squares and cubes

·       solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and a combination of these, including understanding the meaning of the equals sign

·       solve problems involving multiplication and division, including scaling by simple fractions and problems involving simple rates

Number - fractions (including decimals and percentages)

Pupils should be taught to:

·       compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number

·       identify, name and write equivalent fractions of a given fraction, represented visually, including tenths and hundredths

·       recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other and write mathematical statements > 1 as a mixed number [for example, Description: 2/5 + Description: 4/5 =Description: 6/5 = 1 Description: 1/5 ]

·       add and subtract fractions with the same denominator, and denominators that are multiples of the same number

·       multiply proper fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers, supported by materials and diagrams

·       read and write decimal numbers as fractions [for example, 0.71 = Description: 71/100 ]

·       recognise and use thousandths and relate them to tenths, hundredths and decimal equivalents

·       round decimals with 2 decimal places to the nearest whole number and to 1 decimal place

·       read, write, order and compare numbers with up to 3 decimal places

·       solve problems involving number up to 3 decimal places

·       recognise the per cent symbol (%) and understand that per cent relates to ‘number of parts per 100’, and write percentages as a fraction with denominator 100, and as a decimal fraction

·       solve problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of Description: 1/2 , Description: 1/4 , Description: 1/5Description: 2/5 , Description: 4/5 and those fractions with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25

Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

·       convert between different units of metric measure [for example, kilometre and metre; centimetre and metre; centimetre and millimetre; gram and kilogram; litre and millilitre]

·       understand and use approximate equivalences between metric units and common imperial units such as inches, pounds and pints

·       measure and calculate the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in centimetres and metres

·       calculate and compare the area of rectangles (including squares), including using standard units, square centimetres (cm²) and square metres (m²), and estimate the area of irregular shapes

·       estimate volume [for example, using 1 cm³ blocks to build cuboids (including cubes)] and capacity [for example, using water]

·       solve problems involving converting between units of time

·       use all four operations to solve problems involving measure [for example, length, mass, volume, money] using decimal notation, including scaling

Geometry - properties of shapes

Pupils should be taught to:

·       identify 3-D shapes, including cubes and other cuboids, from 2-D representations

·       know angles are measured in degrees: estimate and compare acute, obtuse and reflex angles

·       draw given angles, and measure them in degrees (°)

·       identify:

·       angles at a point and 1 whole turn (total 360°)

·       angles at a point on a straight line and half a turn (total 180°)

·       other multiples of 90°

·       use the properties of rectangles to deduce related facts and find missing lengths and angles

·       distinguish between regular and irregular polygons based on reasoning about equal sides and angles

Geometry - position and direction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       identify, describe and represent the position of a shape following a reflection or translation, using the appropriate language, and know that the shape has not changed


Statistics

Pupils should be taught to:

·       solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in a line graph

·       complete, read and interpret information in tables, including timetables

Year 6 programme of study

Number - number and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

·       read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10,000,000 and determine the value of each digit

·       round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy

·       use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across 0

·       solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above

Number - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

·       multiply multi-digit numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication

·       divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding, as appropriate for the context

·       divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit number using the formal written method of short division where appropriate, interpreting remainders according to the context

·       perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers

·       identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers

·       use their knowledge of the order of operations to carry out calculations involving the 4 operations

·       solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why

·       solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

·       use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, an appropriate degree of accuracy

Number - Fractions (including decimals and percentages)

Pupils should be taught to:

·       use common factors to simplify fractions; use common multiples to express fractions in the same denomination

·       compare and order fractions, including fractions >1

·       add and subtract fractions with different denominators and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions

·       multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form [for example, Description: 1/4 × Description: 1/2 = Description: 1/8 ]

·       divide proper fractions by whole numbers [for example, Description: 1/3 ÷ 2 = Description: 1/6 ]

·       associate a fraction with division and calculate decimal fraction equivalents [for example, 0.375] for a simple fraction [for example, Description: 3/8 ]

·       identify the value of each digit in numbers given to 3 decimal places and multiply and divide numbers by 10, 100 and 1,000 giving answers up to 3 decimal places

·       multiply one-digit numbers with up to 2 decimal places by whole numbers

·       use written division methods in cases where the answer has up to 2 decimal places

·       solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy

·       recall and use equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts

Ratio and proportion

Pupils should be taught to:

·       solve problems involving the relative sizes of 2 quantities where missing values can be found by using integer multiplication and division facts

·       solve problems involving the calculation of percentages [for example, of measures and such as 15% of 360] and the use of percentages for comparison

·       solve problems involving similar shapes where the scale factor is known or can be found

·       solve problems involving unequal sharing and grouping using knowledge of fractions and multiples


Algebra

Pupils should be taught to:

·       use simple formulae

·       generate and describe linear number sequences

·       express missing number problems algebraically

·       find pairs of numbers that satisfy an equation with 2 unknowns

·       enumerate possibilities of combinations of 2 variables


Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

·       solve problems involving the calculation and conversion of units of measure, using decimal notation up to 3 decimal places where appropriate

·       use, read, write and convert between standard units, converting measurements of length, mass, volume and time from a smaller unit of measure to a larger unit, and vice versa, using decimal notation to up to 3 decimal places

·       convert between miles and kilometres

·       recognise that shapes with the same areas can have different perimeters and vice versa

·       recognise when it is possible to use formulae for area and volume of shapes

·       calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles

·       calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including cubic centimetres (cm³) and cubic metres (m³), and extending to other units [for example, mm³ and km³]

Geometry - properties of shapes

Pupils should be taught to:

·       draw 2-D shapes using given dimensions and angles

·       recognise, describe and build simple 3-D shapes, including making nets

·       compare and classify geometric shapes based on their properties and sizes and find unknown angles in any triangles, quadrilaterals, and regular polygons

·       illustrate and name parts of circles, including radius, diameter and circumference and know that the diameter is twice the radius

·       recognise angles where they meet at a point, are on a straight line, or are vertically opposite, and find missing angles

Geometry - position and direction

Pupils should be taught to:

·       describe positions on the full coordinate grid (all 4 quadrants)

·       draw and translate simple shapes on the coordinate plane, and reflect them in the axes

Statistics

Pupils should be taught to:

·       interpret and construct pie charts and line graphs and use these to solve problems

·       calculate and interpret the mean as an average

 

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